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Christian Apologetics—Writing History—Then and Now

The Bible as a Historical Record

The Bible asserts itself as a reliable historical record, chronicling events with divine inspiration and intention. The writers of the Scriptures were guided by the Holy Spirit, ensuring that what they wrote was not merely human recollection but the inspired Word of God. In 2 Timothy 3:16, we read, “All Scripture is God-breathed and is useful for teaching, rebuking, correcting and training in righteousness.” The Greek term "Theopneustos" emphasizes that the Scriptures are divinely inspired, a foundational belief that underscores the historical accuracy and authority of the biblical texts.

Ancient vs. Modern Historical Writing

The question of whether the Bible is “history” as understood by modern standards necessitates an exploration of ancient historiographical methods versus contemporary ones. Modern historians often prioritize chronology, factual accuracy, and the separation of personal bias from objective reporting. However, ancient historians, including biblical writers, had different priorities and methodologies. Their aim was not merely to record events but to convey theological truths and moral teachings through the recounting of history.

In 2 Peter 1:21, it is stated, “For prophecy never had its origin in the human will, but prophets, though human, spoke from God as they were carried along by the Holy Spirit.” The Greek phrase "Pheromenoi hypo pneumatos hagiou" indicates that the prophets were divinely guided, reinforcing the idea that their writings, including historical narratives, were under divine influence. This divine guidance ensured that the biblical accounts, while written in a specific historical and cultural context, transcend mere human limitations and biases.

The Historical Reliability of the Bible

The Bible’s historical books, such as Kings and Chronicles, serve both as records of events and as didactic literature aimed at teaching moral and spiritual lessons. The genealogies, for example, which might seem tedious to modern readers, were crucial for establishing identity and legitimacy in the ancient world. They provided a framework for understanding God’s unfolding plan through history. In 1 Chronicles 9:1, the chronicler writes, “All Israel was listed in the genealogies recorded in the book of the kings of Israel.” This emphasis on genealogical records underscores their importance in the ancient context.

Archaeological evidence has often corroborated biblical narratives, affirming the Bible’s reliability as a historical source. For instance, discoveries related to the Hittites, once thought to be a biblical myth, have confirmed their historical existence, as described in Genesis 23:10. Such findings bolster the claim that the Bible, while primarily a theological document, also serves as a credible historical source.

The Challenge of Postmodern Criticism

In recent decades, postmodernist critics have challenged the Bible’s reliability, arguing that all historical narratives are inherently subjective, shaped by the ideologies and biases of their authors. They claim that the original intention of the biblical authors cannot be recovered and that the meaning of the text is inextricably linked to the reader's perspective. However, this view is not consistent with the biblical understanding of divine inspiration. According to Hebrews 4:12, “For the word of God is alive and active. Sharper than any double-edged sword, it penetrates even to dividing soul and spirit, joints and marrow; it judges the thoughts and attitudes of the heart.” This passage highlights the Bible’s enduring power and relevance, transcending the subjective interpretations of individual readers.

The Minimalist Perspective

The Minimalists argue that much of the Old Testament history, particularly the patriarchal narratives and the conquest of Canaan, are fictional creations of later writers. They demand independent archaeological verification for biblical events. However, this approach is flawed. The absence of evidence is not evidence of absence. Kenneth Kitchen’s principle that "the absence of evidence is not the evidence of absence" is particularly relevant here. The biblical account in Joshua 24:13 states, “I gave you a land on which you did not toil and cities you did not build; and you live in them and eat from vineyards and olive groves that you did not plant.” This suggests that the Israelites occupied existing Canaanite cities rather than destroying them, which could explain the lack of extensive archaeological evidence.

Understanding Ancient Historiography

The biblical writers’ approach to history was deeply intertwined with their theological worldview. They viewed history as the unfolding of God’s plan and wrote with the purpose of illustrating divine principles. For instance, the chronicler’s emphasis on the faithfulness of David’s line in 1 Chronicles 17:11-14 highlights God’s covenant promises and their fulfillment through history. This theological focus does not negate the historical accuracy of the accounts but rather situates them within a framework that emphasizes God’s sovereignty and purpose.


The ancient biblical authors were not attempting to write history in the modern sense but were conveying theological truths through their historical narratives. Their writings, inspired by the Holy Spirit, are trustworthy and authoritative, offering both historical facts and divine insights. By understanding the cultural and theological context of the biblical writers, we can appreciate the Scriptures as both a reliable historical record and a source of profound spiritual truth.

About the author

EDWARD D. ANDREWS (AS in Criminal Justice, BS in Religion, MA in Biblical Studies, and MDiv in Theology) is CEO and President of Christian Publishing House. He has authored over 220+ books. In addition, Andrews is the Chief Translator of the Updated American Standard Version (UASV).


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