top of page

How Can We Understand God Is Indirectly Responsible for All Things and Directly Responsible for Some Things?


Understanding the extent of God's responsibility in the world is crucial for a coherent Christian theology. This involves distinguishing between direct and indirect responsibility, which allows believers to navigate the complex issues of sin, suffering, and divine intervention. This section explores the theological framework for understanding God's role in various events and actions, emphasizing the importance of distinguishing between His direct and indirect involvement.

The Concept of Divine Responsibility

God’s responsibility for the world and its events can be divided into direct and indirect categories. This distinction is vital for a proper understanding of God’s nature and His interaction with creation. It prevents misconceptions about God's role in evil and suffering while affirming His sovereignty and justice.

Direct Responsibility

Direct responsibility refers to instances where God actively intervenes in the world to accomplish His purposes. These actions are clear and unmistakable demonstrations of His will. Examples from Scripture include:

  1. Creation: God directly created the universe and all living beings. Genesis 1:1 states, "In the beginning, God created the heavens and the earth" (UASV). This foundational act is a direct exercise of divine power and will.

  2. Miracles: Miraculous events, such as the parting of the Red Sea (Exodus 14:21-22), the resurrection of Jesus (Matthew 28:5-6), and the various healings performed by Jesus, are direct interventions by God to reveal His power and authenticate His messengers.

  3. Judgments: God directly intervenes in judgment, as seen in the plagues of Egypt (Exodus 7-12) and the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah (Genesis 19:24-25). These acts serve to execute divine justice and reveal God's holiness.

Indirect Responsibility

Indirect responsibility refers to God's allowance of events and actions through the natural order and human free will. While God permits these occurrences, He does not directly cause them. This distinction is crucial in understanding the problem of evil and suffering.

  1. Free Will and Sin: God created humans with free will, allowing them to make their own choices. This includes the capacity to sin. When Adam and Eve sinned, they exercised their free will in opposition to God's command (Genesis 3:1-6). Although God allowed this, He did not cause their sin. Instead, He permitted it as part of His larger plan for human history and redemption.

  2. Natural Evils: Natural disasters and diseases are often cited as examples of indirect responsibility. While God created the natural order, He allows it to operate according to its own principles, which can result in events like earthquakes, floods, and illnesses. These are not direct acts of God’s will but occur within the framework He established.

  3. Historical Events: Many historical events, including wars and political upheavals, fall under God’s indirect responsibility. For example, the rise and fall of empires are seen as part of God's overarching plan, even though they result from human actions and decisions. Daniel 2:21 states, "He changes times and seasons; he removes kings and sets up kings" (UASV), indicating God's sovereign control over history without directly causing each event.

Theological Implications

Understanding God's indirect and direct responsibilities has profound theological implications, particularly concerning the nature of evil and suffering.

  1. Evil and Suffering: The existence of evil and suffering in the world is often a stumbling block for faith. Recognizing that God permits these within His sovereign plan, rather than directly causing them, helps reconcile the presence of evil with the belief in a good and just God. James 1:13 clarifies, "Let no one say when he is tempted, 'I am being tempted by God,' for God cannot be tempted with evil, and he himself tempts no one" (UASV). This underscores that God does not directly cause evil.

  2. Divine Justice: God’s justice is evident in His direct interventions, particularly in acts of judgment. These serve to uphold His righteousness and deter sin. However, God’s allowance of human free will and natural processes shows His commitment to a world where genuine love and moral choice are possible. Romans 8:28 assures believers, "And we know that all things work together for good for those who love God, for those who are called according to His purpose" (UASV), highlighting that even indirect events are under His providential care.

Practical Applications

Believers must apply this understanding in their daily lives and theological reflections.

  1. Prayer and Providence: Recognizing God’s direct and indirect actions informs how believers pray and understand providence. Prayers should acknowledge God's sovereignty and seek His will, understanding that His answers may involve both direct intervention and providential allowance.

  2. Pastoral Care: When addressing suffering and evil, pastors and counselors should emphasize God's compassion and presence, distinguishing between what God allows and what He directly causes. This helps believers trust in God’s goodness despite their circumstances.

  3. Moral Responsibility: Understanding free will and indirect responsibility underscores human moral responsibility. Believers are accountable for their actions and should strive to align their will with God’s, knowing that He permits their choices but calls them to righteousness.

Biblical Examples of Indirect Responsibility

Several biblical narratives illustrate God's indirect responsibility, demonstrating how He allows events within His sovereign plan.

  1. Joseph’s Story: Joseph’s brothers sold him into slavery out of jealousy, an act of human sin. Yet, God allowed these events to bring about a greater good. Joseph later told his brothers, "As for you, you meant evil against me, but God meant it for good, to bring it about that many people should be kept alive, as they are today" (Genesis 50:20, UASV). This illustrates how God can use human actions, even sinful ones, to fulfill His purposes.

  2. Job’s Trials: The Book of Job provides a profound exploration of suffering and divine permission. God allowed Satan to test Job, but He did not cause Job’s suffering directly. Job’s faithfulness through his trials demonstrated the depth of human integrity and the complexity of divine providence.

  3. Paul’s Thorn: The Apostle Paul experienced a "thorn in the flesh," which he described as a messenger of Satan allowed by God to keep him humble (2 Corinthians 12:7-10). God’s indirect responsibility in this situation served to demonstrate His grace and power in Paul’s weakness.


Distinguishing between God’s direct and indirect responsibilities allows for a more nuanced and faithful understanding of His role in the world. It affirms His sovereignty and justice while upholding human free will and the natural order. By recognizing these distinctions, believers can better navigate the complexities of life, suffering, and divine providence, deepening their trust in God's overarching plan for good.

About the Author

EDWARD D. ANDREWS (AS in Criminal Justice, BS in Religion, MA in Biblical Studies, and MDiv in Theology) is CEO and President of Christian Publishing House. He has authored over 220+ books. In addition, Andrews is the Chief Translator of the Updated American Standard Version (UASV).



bottom of page